Writing Basics, Fundamentals, Sentence Structure and Clauses

A girl with pen and note book writing basics

1. Writing Basics

Writing is all around us. Writing is a big part of how we talk to each other and communicate effectively. It’s in books, in text messages, and all over the internet. It’s also a key skill for making things happen in the school environment and at the office.

Here is a guide to writing basics to help you take your writing to the next level, whether you want to write the next Great American Novel or just finish your homework on time. Find definitions of important writing terms in “Writing Basics,” as well as links to other resources to learn more about composing and improving your skills.

Writing basics is a way to show what we think and believe. And we can’t write something that doesn’t make sense. Language is a way for us to talk about or write down what we think, feel, or want to say.

In learning writing basics, Writing is a way to communicate, and knowing how to write well makes it easier and clearer to say what you want to say. It is used to talk about anything. Like personal and professional communication. It helps you come up with and write any kind of writing. It also helps to make our writing clearer and more interesting.

The Fundamentals of Writing

For writing basics, Learning the fundamental components of writing, from individual words to their placement in sentences, paragraphs, pages, and beyond, will help you communicate more effectively.


It takes practice to come up with the right spelling for a variety of terms. Spelling, however, shows that a writer cares about the quality of their work and has taken the time to ensure that it is free of errors; therefore it is worth the effort. 

Of course, you won’t be able to catch everything, even with experience. Even the finest spellers can benefit from the built-in spell-check features in word processors like Microsoft Word and digital writing assistants like Microsoft Editor.


There are other factors to take into account at the word level besides mere spelling. Any writer who wants to use the appropriate word at the right time and add more accuracy to their arguments and descriptions might benefit from having a large vocabulary. You may memorize the definitions of new and practical phrases by using study tools like flash cards.


Beyond selecting specific words, being aware of the fundamentals of grammar will help you produce writing that effectively conveys your ideas. Explore our Grammar 101 guide to master the fundamentals of grammar or to brush up before moving on to more complex ideas.


Whether you’re creating suspense in a novel or developing a strong argument, learning how to marshal your words into paragraphs and arrange your paragraphs into a larger piece can make all the difference in the success of your writing.

Four types of writing in writing basics

The good news is that such talents frequently translate easily to multiple objectives, even though you might be trying to enhance your abilities in a certain style of writing. Here is a collection of typical forms of writing along with some helpful links to further reading on these subjects.

Academic and research writing

From elementary book reports and college essays to doctorate dissertations, academic writing includes a variety of formal writing that primarily serves to present the findings of in-depth research and analysis.

Written communication is still crucial in a work environment dominated by conference calls and video chats. Writing abilities are essential for completing any task, whether you’re writing resumes and cover letters to get a job, business plans to launch a new company, or letters, emails, and reports during the workday.

Creative writing

Expressive writing in the genres of poetry, creative non-fiction (memoir, literary journalism, and personal essays), and fiction (novels and short stories) employ tales and descriptions to address large topics and convey significant stories.

Personal writing

Personal writing can aid in better understanding our emotions, developing our thoughts, and preserving our memories. Examples include daily diaries, trip journals, and free writing.

Different styles of writing

In writing basics, the four primary types of writing are expository, persuasive, descriptive, and narrative. You can better grasp the things you can do in your own writing by understanding various styles of writing and how to locate them.


Expository writing revolves around content and takes its name from the word exposition, which Merriam-Webster describes as a setting forth of the meaning or purpose. Contrary to it, creative writing and expository writing offer information and aim to help readers understand particular topics. 

Academic writing, newspaper articles, business reports, and nonfiction books are common places to find them.


Writing that aims to persuade readers toward a particular perspective and point of view is persuasive writing, commonly known to it as argumentative writing. The persuasive writer strives to persuade readers to convince them to concur with evidence and anecdotes to support their stance. 

Editorials in newspapers and magazines, academic essays, speeches in public forums, and even advertising all contain persuasive and argumentative writing.


Descriptive writing aims to use sensory language to describe a person, location, thing, or event. Though descriptive writing is frequently referred to as trying to “create a picture” for the reader, it can engage all five senses. 

Despite the fact that you might most closely identify this style of description with literary works like novels and poems, descriptive writing can be found in almost any type of writing.


Writing that tells a tale qualifies as narrative. These tales may have a real-life basis or be wholly made up, but they will show characters in motion. Although it is most frequently used in fiction, readers can also find narrative writing in non-fiction in the form of tales, biographies, and memoirs.

2. Sentence structure | Sentence construction

The grammatical building blocks of the English language can be summed up in one phrase: proper sentence construction. If you grasp the mechanics of sentence construction, you can express yourself in a variety of ways on the page. This post will define sentence structure, explain the four main categories of sentence structures, and provide examples of each.

Sentence structure is an arrangement including its core elements, such as the subject, the predicate, and, in some cases, the direct or indirect object. Construction rules for sentences are straightforward but unyielding. Among these is the requirement that every sentence has a subject, predicate, and object.

Furthermore, we can incorporate features like prepositions and subordinate clauses. Sentences with these characteristics are considered advanced because of their ability to combine together more complex patterns. A complete sentence is a group that keeps all the three parts.

 It has a subject

If someone or something performs any action or serves as the main focus of the sentence, it means a subject is present.


Waseem left an hour earlier than usual.

Our team won the match.

It has a Verb( predicate)

A word or phrase that explains an action, such as want, run, take, give, or a state of being, such as am, is, are, was, were,  and be.


Adil wants a promotion.

He is the chief operator in this department.

It has object ( It expresses a complete thought)

n other words, the group of words has a complete meaning. Sometimes, a group of words has both a subject and verb but still does not express a complete thought, they are called sentence fragments. So, it needs an object to express a complete thought.

The objects are divided into Direct and Indirect

Direct object

The direct object means the receiver of the sentence’s action. Typically, the direct object is a noun or pronoun.


The man constructs the building.

The man constructs it.

Indirect Object

The indirect object shows to whom or for whose benefit the activity of the phrase is performed. Typically, the indirect object is a noun or pronoun.


The man builds his family a bungalow.

The man builds them a bungalow.

Grammar rules for sentence structure

Besides comprehending the components of a phrase, you must also adhere to the rules of grammar. Here is a short reminder, in case you forget:

The initial letter in the first word in a sentence should be capitalized.

A sentence should end with a period, a question mark, an exclamation point, or quotation marks.

The subject of a sentence often comes first, followed by the verb, and then the objects. (Subject -> Verb -> Object) If the subject is singular, the verb must be singular as well. If the subject is multiple, so must the verb. This is referred to as subject-verb agreement.

3. Clauses and Sentences

All sentences consist of one or more clauses. A clause defines a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. If every phrase consisted of subject + verb + object, books would be incredibly dull. To keep things exciting and to provide more possibilities in speaking and writing, English language has produced several different sentence forms.

Before discussing these various sentence patterns, it is essential to understand how clauses function. A clause (group of words) consists of a subject and a verb. Occasionally, a clause is a complete sentence on its own, and other times, it needs assistance to represent a complete notion.

·         A subject, i.e. it means the focus of the clause, or someone or thing which does something in the clause.

·         A complete finite verb, i.e.  It means a verb that contains a subject and a sense of time.


Subject           Verb

The lecture finished at 3 pm

Pollution     causes    cancer

Pakistan            is           in   south Asia

Some clauses are independent, and others are dependent. To complete a sentence, we should be aware that it must contain at least one independent clause.

Independent Clause

A clause that stands independently as a complete sentence is known as an independent clause. It has all the components of a complete sentence: subjects and verbs, with optional objects.

Subject      Verb

               We’ll     eat          dinner at five              

We         went    to the beach

Dependent Clause

A clause that does not form a complete sentence is referred to as a dependent clause or subordinate clause. Typically, they support independent clauses by providing relevant information.

Subject     verb   subject   verb        object

The roads      are icy because it          rained    last night.

4. Types of Sentences (on the basis of structure)

In English, there are four sentence types. You’ll see a significant improvement in overall writing once you master these four structures.

Simple sentence

As the name implies, this is the simplest sentence structure. But that in no way implies that it is too easy for academic writing. Contrary to popular belief, basic phrases are excellent for academic writing because they can be so concise and understandable.

A simple contains a subject, verb, and object. Your sentence’s first noun serves as your subject. The action-taker is the one who must be obeyed. Your verb is the term that expresses activity and tells us what the noun is doing. All that follows your verb is your object. It is the outcome of the action occurring.

Grammar presents simple clause an individual clause. Both the subject and the predicate are singular. The subject shows who or what did something Jump, labor, and think are examples of actions that the predicate describes (is, was, seem, appear)

  •  I like coffee
  • The staff performed well
  •  My computer crashed
  •  A white shirt always looks sharp
  • She opened the door
  • Students failed to complete their essays on time.

Simple Sentences are not always brief. They can be long as well. Like:

  • Rashid ran to the shop to buy milk, egg, and ham for dinner that night.
  • This research examines the professional capabilities of three groups of women who work as executives in the financial industry.
  • This report examines the success rate of Pakistani financial institutions and the barriers to wealth creation for everyday consumers.

Use simple sentences when you don’t feel extremely secure when writing. The sentences above are excellent examples. Simple sentences can, as you can see, be brief or lengthy. When you have mastered creating clear sentences with subjects, verbs, and objects, you can go on to the other three sentence kinds.

Compound Sentence

In this sentence type, we use conjunctions to connect two simple sentences together. Each half of the compound sentence can stand on its own as a complete sentence, you have decided that both pieces are related, and therefore can be connected together into one sentence. Some examples are here.

The sun is shining and there are no clouds in the sky.

It was a beautiful day so we decided to go to the skateboard park.

The appropriateness of combining a sentence depends on its substance. It depends that two simple sentences must come alone or be combined into a single sentence as well as joined by and or but.

A compound sentence comprises two sentences A coordinating junction (and, nor, for, so, yet, but) connects the two independent clauses and a coma is used in the end.

Two independent clauses may be connected by a semicolon when they have an implied logical relationship

Adnan travelled to Europe last summer; Waseem found a job and stayed in his hometown.

Two independent clauses may be joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction. The seven coordination conjunctions can easily be remembered with mnemonic device FANBOYS.

       Adnan travelled to Europe last summer, but Waseem found a job and stayed in his hometown.

Two Independent clauses may be joined by a semicolon, a transitional word or phrase, and a comma.

       Adnan travelled to Europe last summer; however, Waseem found a job and stayed in his hometown.

Examples of Transitional words

Nevertheless, Therefore, Additionally, On the other hand, Nonetheless, Similarly, Unquestionably, For instance, For example, Accordingly, Consequently, Finally, Hence, Thus.

Several further compound phrases

  • London is in England, and Rome is in Italy.
  •  You can take a train or take a bus.
  • What he did was incredible; in fact, I can hardly believe it.
  •  The sky is cloudy; it’s going to rain.
  •  He went to bed early, and the next day he felt better.

Complex Sentences

In complex sentence, an independent clause is connected to a dependent clause. A simple sentence constitutes an independent clause. It is a complete thought on its own. A dependent clause in a sentence component is unable to stand alone. These sentences have a subject and a verb, but they do not convey a coherent idea.

  • As soon as we arrived, we started our work.
  •  Ali broke his arm because he wasn’t careful.

The dependent clause such as  As soon as we arrived and because he wasn’t careful in the above sentences cannot stand on their own as sentence, but they do help you to tell contrasts and build on your ideas. These independent clauses are connected to an independent clause We started our work and Ali broke his arm in an order to express a complete thought.

The dependent clause is seen within a complete sentence: before the independent clause, after the independent clause, before and after the independent clause, or interrupting the independent clause.

  • When he finishes university, Ali hopes to move to his hometown.(Dependent clause, Independent Clause)
  • Ali hopes to move to his hometown when he finishes university.(Independent clause, dependent clause)
  •  I read the story that you wrote.(Dependent clause, Independent Clause)
  • While I was on the train, I read the story that you wrote.(Independent clause, dependent clause)

Here are words that introduce dependent clauses:

After, although, as, because, before, even if, even though, if in order that, once, provided that, rather than, since, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, whereas, whenever, whether, while, why, so that, than.

Complex-Compound Sentence

In this sentence, a compound sentence is combined a complex one. Here are examples

  • Until I finish my exams, I have to study every night; otherwise, I would definitely join you for the concert.
  • Sadia was confused about the assignment that was due on Tuesday, so she asked her teacher for help.

Through the given examples, one could easily write one simple sentence and one complex sentence, or two or three simple sentences. It’s up to you now what kind of sentence structure you choose.

Moreover, it depends on you to know the needs in order to be carefully guided through your ideas. If you do indeed have something complex to express, and you feel it would be best expressed within one sentence, you should attempt these sentences.

If you want to master these four types of sentences, you would be able to write clear sentences and it means avoiding composing sentences that are too long for the reader to grasp.

While mainly focusing on simple sentence, practice all four structures. You can communicate clear ideas, if you clearly combine subject, verb, and object then you are well on your way to communicating clear ideas.

About the Author

Anila Ibrahim

An educationist, web content writer, equipped with an LLB and a Master’s degree in English Literature, as well as a Master of Philosophy in Entrepreneurship. I have a comprehensive understanding of both the English language and the educational landscape. This academic background empowers Anila to deliver content that is not only informative but also thoroughly researched.

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