Using the Scientific Method, About Author, Summary, Q & A | for 2nd Year Students

                                            

Using Scientific Method

  

 Using the Scientific Method

        (Darrel Bernard & Lon Edwards)

About Authors


Darrel Bernard: 

Chairman of the department of science education at school of education at New York University, New York.

Lon Edwards:

 Chairman of science Department at Danbury State teachers college in Danbury.

Both supervised the teachers of science College High School, Colorado State College of Education. They are co-authors of the famous book “The new basic science “that was published in 1956. Using the Scientific Method is taken from this book.
At the start, first, we see what the scientific method is? We can divide it into six points


  • Make an observation
  • Inquire questions about the observation and collect information
  • Form a hypothesis
  • Test the hypothesis in an experiment
  • Analyze the data and draw conclusions; accept or reject the hypothesis or modify it if necessary
  • Reproduce the experiment until there are found no discrepancies between observation and theory.



 Summary

This is an explanatory and factual essay by Darrel Barnard & and Lon Edwards. The authors have delineated in detail how our lives have been modified by using the scientific method. Science has provided the solution to our many problems that we faced before the invention of scientific procedures. Science has revolutionized our lives and we are being benefitted by scientific use.

The writes describe in their essay that science did marvelous in the field of health. It has assisted us in better control of diseases. Science has discovered the causes of many fatal diseases. In the past, babies became the victims of many fatal diseases and died before reaching their 1st birthday.

 Human beings had to face the epidemics and no vaccine was there to save their lives and they died due to the diseases. Life was uncertain and unsure.  The new scientific method has helped us in controlling the diseases and human beings are vaccinated now. They are now safe and the life expectancy of people is enhanced. The average age of human beings is now extended to 70 years.

Our sanitary conditions were not good in the past. The houses were narrow and dark. The roads were unpaved, uneven and rough. There was no system for the drainage of dirty water and people threw garbage on the streets. Now science has addressed the issues relating to hygienic and sanitary conditions. Roads are paved and water supply is good.

Now here is a proper system of water drainage and people are aware that dirty water becomes the cause of spreading diseases. Now clean water is everywhere and people use it for household. Water supply in enough for domestic purposes. Science did wonderful in providing good sanitary conditions.

The issue of the scarcity of water is solved. People brought water from far off places for their uses. People use water spendthriftly. But now science has resolved this issue and the availability of water in possible. The scarcity of water is not found now the scientific method also solved the problem of scarcity of food.

 We can obtain fresh food throughout the year. Now, man is fully aware of the preservation method to get fresh fruits, vegetables, seafood, and meat. He is acquainted with the drying method and can use canned food. Their nutrition value is also maintained.

Science has enlightened human minds. The modern people have overcome the prejudiced and superstitious thoughts. Now they judge the circumstances logically. Those who think the diseases are caused by evil spirits are less in number. Although fortune-tellers are performing their practices yet they affect less the lives of few people.

Now science has changed their way of thinking and attitudes to develop open-mindedness in human beings. Today’s men don’t believe in superstitions. He knows that every incident has cause for its happening. They are no more scared of the black cat, mirror breaking, and with number 13.

They have changed their stale old concepts and are open-hearted and open-minded. They look forward to new things rather to get afraid. Many of their problems are resolved now due to the scientific method.

                                                  Answers of the Questions

Questions & Answers, using the scientific method



Ans 1: In the past, people died of fatal diseases like yellow fever, typhus, cholera, typhoid fever, measles, and whooping cough. With the use of the scientific method, we can fight against the disease. This all occurred with the invention of modern medicine and epidemic control.


Ans 2: Sanitary conditions in our larger cities, one hundred years ago, were very poor and unhygienic, but today our city streets are paved, well-drained, and well cleaned. Sewage from all the parts of the city is carried through sealed pipes. Clean water is supplied to the people now.


Ans 3: In our villages, sanitary conditions are not good. Streets are not paved and well-drained. The system of sewerage is not proper. We can bring improvement in managed planning and by making people conscious about their health. Streets must be paved. Garbage must be removed.


Ans 4: It has been made possible to increase the production of food by using various fertilizers and pesticides prepared by the scientific method. Moreover, the scientific method has also enabled us to find new ways of preservation of food, dehydration, and quick freeze methods which increase the quality of food.


Ans 5: We are now generally less fearful than our ancestors because they believed in the signs of good or bad luck. They were afraid of black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13. They wore different kinds of charms to avoid bad luck.


Ans 6: superstitious beliefs are got over by the use of the scientific method which has shown that there is no sound basis for them. It has taught us that there is always a good natural reasons for everything that happens.


Ans 7: Astrology and fortune-telling affected the lives of people greatly in the past. People attributed both good and bad to stars. They consulted astrologers before doing anything.


Ans 8: There are a lot of superstitions in our country. People have a strong belief in evil and wrong things. Business of fortune-telling is in all areas of Pakistan. Some people plan their activities in the light of the signs of good and bad luck even.


        Words                                Synonyms

      Benefitted                    profited, aided, served, assisted

      Maintenance              upkeep, care, preservation, prolongation

      Happenings                events, occurrences, phenomena, incidents

      Mysterious                  puzzling, odd, queer, inexplicable

      Critical                          Judicious, reasonable, analytical, judgmental

      Likely                             probable, possible, expectedly, believably

      Battle                             struggle, fight, contest, conflict

      Control                         check, curb, restraint

      Likelihood                   chance, probability, prospect

      Protect                           save, safeguard, shield, defend

      Unpaved                       not metaled, rough, irregular, bumpy

      Garbage                        waste, refuse, rubbish, dung

      Drained                         dripped, seeped, leaked, discharged

      Sewage                          used water, polluted water, and drainage

      Demonstrated            shown, illustrated, indicated, proved

      Sanitation                    cleanliness, hygiene, eradication of germs

      Prevent                         stop, check, restraint

      Considered                 reasonable, sufficient, ample, enough

      Sparingly                     carefully, miserly, scantily, economically

      Aqueduct                     tunnel, channel, course, waterway

      Growth                         expansion, progress, development

      Remarkable                significant, great, prominent

      Advance                        leap, progress, improvement

      Thrifty                           frugal, economical, beach, shoreline

      Coast                              shore, coastline, beach, shoreline

      Variety                          collection, combination, diversity

      Preserved                    conserved, frozen, processed, retained

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