We as human beings are curious to know our roots, culture, values, traditions, habits, origins, and civilization. We try to trace back the civilization of our ancestors. The important is to know the civilization. In general, civilization refers to a complex society.
When people live collectively in settled dwellings comprising cities and participate in specialized activities, society becomes complex. A complex civilization has the following components:
- Systems of morality and law regulate behaviour and establish justice.
- Modern technology speeds up communication and produces goods for consumers, among other things.
- Establishing justice and protecting citizens’ rights.
- An abundance of food to feed a population that is expanding.
In the past, human life was obviously highly precarious in the ancient and medieval eras. People from all strata of human society suffered from famine, sickness, and even warfare. They were more common than they are in Western societies today.
The study of ancient history investigates the origins, cultures, and traditions that still exist now. Even our style of thinking can be traced back to antiquity; current Western philosophy, morality, and ethics are all profoundly founded in ancient Greek, Roman, and medieval Christian ideologies.
Civilization begins with order, grows with liberty, and with caos
The origins of the ancient civilization are an important subject among anthropologists and historians. While it is impossible to identify the exact year civilization started, it is believed that civilization started when cultivating was first developed.
Ancient civilizations were built on farming which is also the root of many other things thought to have contributed to the development and growth of civilizations in the past.
First, Farming is thought to have begun in Mesopotamia before moving on to Egypt. What we now refer to as civilization arose approximately 5,000 years ago in the Near East in Mesopotamia and Egypt, and later in the Far East in India and China. Egypt and China are thought to have given rise to human civilization.
Second, people settled down and made permanent arrangements. This caused population expansion and demand for the establishment of social, economic, and political systems. Permanent settlements eventually led to the formation of city-states or the advent of empires, of kings and bureaucrats.
Thirdly, People who work in specialized, non-food-producing occupations, such as craftsmen, scribes, artisans, warriors, priests, merchants, administrators, bakers, fortunetellers, priests, and so on. Job specialization is one of civilization’s most important aspects.
It is the reason for complicated trade and interdependence, i.e. Civilizations’ reliance on one another to fulfil their needs. As a result, it is not incorrect to assert that specialization promotes the evolution of civilizations.
Fourth, small-scale, village-based societies became large-scale ones with cities.”x The term civilization is derived from the Latin terms civilis, civis, and civitas, which mean ‘citizens, citizen, and city, respectively. They express the concept of living in the city.
Fifth, writing was developed. This invention led to record keeping, history, and the transfer of culture from one generation to the next. It also promoted communication among different individuals; they acquired and exchanged knowledge, experiences, and feelings. Furthermore, it allowed government officials and priests to manage their affairs more freely.
Sixth, a multicultural society was established. That is when people from various cultures began living peacefully or with mutual understanding in a community. Religion was one of the aspects that resulted in the development of a multicultural civilization.
Seventh, a religious system was established. It should be understood that no known society has existed without a religious system. As a result, a religious system is an essential component of all civilizations.
A religious system’s function is to bring people together and strengthen social unity. It serves as a guide to what is acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. This means that maintains social order by controlling people’s behaviour.
The ancient civilizations were characterized by advanced social, cultural, and technological advancements that laid the foundation for modern society. Some of the well-known ancient civilizations include the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and, Indian, Chinese, and Roman civilizations.
The Mesopotamian civilization which existed in the fertile crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, is considered to be one of the earliest civilizations, dating back to around 5000 BC. It is the home of ancient Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria.
Persian Empire also started here. The birth of Christ, Hebrews, and the land of milk and honey is remarkable. Muhammad( Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), the greatest leader and founder of Islam enlightened the Mesopotamian civilization.
The Mesopotamians are known for their invention of writing, irrigation, and the wheel, which significantly contributed to the development of modern civilization. The credit for mathematics and astronomy also goes to this civilization.
The Egyptian civilization is perhaps one of the most well-known ancient civilizations that existed in the Nile valley from about 3100 BC to the end of the pharaohs’ rule in 31 BC.
The Egyptians are known for their monumental architecture, such as the pyramids, sphinxes, and temples, as well as their hieroglyphic writing system. The Egyptians believed in an afterlife, and this is evident in the way they prepared their dead for burial, including mummification.
The Greek civilization is also a prominent ancient civilization that existed from about 2000 BC to 146 BC. The Greeks were known for their contribution to philosophy, science, and the arts.
Some of the well-known Greek philosophers include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, while their artistic achievements include the Parthenon, the Olympic Games, and theatre.
The Roman civilization which followed the Greek civilization, lasted from about 753 BC to 476 AD. The Romans were known for their advanced system of government, military, engineering, and law.
The Roman Empire extended over large parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia, and the Latin language used by the Romans significantly influenced modern European languages.
The Indian civilization traces back to the early civilization in the Indus Valley. They believe in the caste system. There was the rise of Hinduism, the spread of Buddhism, and the Gupta period.
The Chinese civilization is an important civilization of the Middle Kingdom, Shang Dynasty, Hnag Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, and Taoism and Confucianism. The ancient Chinese civilization contributed to the invention of the compass, paper, gunpowder, porcelain, noodles, paper money, and silk.
The great work of architecture is also found here, such as the Great Wall. Yellow River Valley is called the birthplace of Chinese ancient civilization.
Ancient Rome emerged as an Italic town beside the Tiber River in the Italian Peninsula in approximately 753 BC. The colony evolved into the city and government of Rome, and it came to control its neighbours through treaties and military might.
The Roman Empire was started by Augustus Caesar who declared himself the first Roman Emporer. The ancient Romans conquered huge amounts of land in Europe and northern Africa, built highways and aqueducts, and propagated Latin, their language, far and wide.
Ancient Rome is known for the Roman Republic, Julius Caesar, the Pax Romana, Gladiators, and the fall of the Roman Empire.
Summing up, ancient civilizations are significant in shaping modern society by laying the foundation for advancements in technology, arts, philosophy, and governance. Despite the differences in their cultures and beliefs, these civilizations have left a lasting legacy that continues to influence modern society to this day.
It has, among other things, led to greater agricultural and industrial production. Modern civilization relies on electricity makes it inseparable from human life. Farming was critical to the development of tools made of wood or stone.
A study of a past civilization benefits learners’ global awareness. For instance, when ancient civilizations are related to humanities and social sciences, students are better able to comprehend the economic and political similarities and differences between various cultures, groups of people, and the environment.
Civilizations the process of setting man free from men
Ancient civilizations affected us today. With these developments, Mesopotamia earned the current title of Cradle of Civilization. The Sumerians also established the first schools, created the first codes of law, invented irrigation, and developed our modern understanding of time by dividing the day into hours, minutes, and seconds.